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Title : Kidney Stone and its causes and prevention Previous topic PreviousNext Next topic

Kidney stones form in the kidney. Kidney stones are small, hard deposits that form inside kidneys. It is a solid concretion or crystal aggregation formed in the kidneys from dietary minerals in the urine. These deposits can grow to the size of a golf ball while maintaining a sharp, crystalline structure. They may be small and pass unnoticed out of the urinary tract, but they may also cause extreme pain upon exiting.
Kidney stones typically leave the body by passage in the urine stream, and many stones are formed and passed without causing symptoms. If stones grow to sufficient size they can cause obstruction of the ureter. Ureteral obstruction causes postrenal azotemia and hydronephrosis, as well as spasm of the ureter. This leads to pain, most commonly felt in the flank, lower abdomen, and groin.
Kidney stones are twice as common among males as females. Most people who experience kidney stones do so between the ages of 30 and 50. A family history of kidney stones also increases one's chances of developing them at some point in life. Similarly, a previous kidney stone occurrence increases the risk that a person will develop subsequent stones in the future if preventative action is not taken.
 Top 10 Causes of Kidney Stones :
 1) The leading cause of kidney stones is a lack of water. Stones commonly have been found in those that drink less than the recommended eight to ten glasses of water a day.
 2) Dietary factors that increase the risk of stone formation include low fluid intake and high dietary intake of animal protein, sodium, refined sugars, fructose and high fructose corn syrup, oxalate, grapefruit juice, apple juice, and cola drinks.
 3) Calcium is one component of the most common type of human kidney stones, calcium oxalate. Some studies suggest people who take supplemental calcium have a higher risk of developing kidney stones, and these findings have been used as the basis for setting the recommended daily intake for calcium in adults.
 4) Fluoridation of drinking water may increase the risk of kidney stone.

 5) People taking diuretics (or "water pills") and those who consume excess calcium-containing antacids can increase the amount of calcium in their urine and potentially increase their risk of forming stones.
 6) There may be a geographic predisposition, and where a person lives may predispose them to form kidney stones.
 7) Some chronic illnesses are associated with kidney stone formation, including cystic fibrosis, renal tubular acidosis, and inflammatory bowel disease.
 8) Medications used for treating some medical conditions such as kidney disease, cancer or HIV can also increase your risk of developing kidney stones.
 9) Rare inherited conditions.
 10) Having had previous kidney stones.
Top 10 Symptoms of Kidney Stones :
A kidney stone usually remains symptomless until it moves into the ureter. Small stones may pass without causing symptoms. When symptoms become apparent, they include:

 1) Severe pain in the groin and/or side.
 2) Blood in urine.
 3) Vomiting and nausea.
 4) White blood cells or pus in the urine.
 5) Reduced amount of excreted urine excreted.
 6) Burning sensation during urination.
 7) Persistent urge to urinate.
 8) Shivers, sweating and fever if there is accompanying infection
 9) An urgent feeling of needing to urinate, due to a stone at the bladder outlet.
 10) People who have had a kidney stone often describe the pain as "the worst pain I've ever had.
 How to prevent Kidney Stones :
 There are some alternative methods that help prevent kidney stones.
 1) Drink water throughout the day. Prevent kidney stones naturally by drinking large quantities of water, up to 14 cups each day in most cases.
 2) Drink at least 1 glass of lemonade each day to avoid developing kidney stones.

 3) Eat fewer oxalate-rich foods. If you tend to form calcium oxalate stones, your doctor may recommend restricting foods rich in oxalates.
 4) Limit the amount of animal protein that you consume from meats, especially organ meat such as liver.

 5) Choose a diet low in salt and animal protein. Reduce the amount of salt you eat and choose nonanimal protein sources, such as legumes.
 6) Too much salt promotes kidney stone formation since the kidneys tend to retain the salt and dump stone-causing calcium into the urine.
 7) Continue eating calcium-rich foods, but use caution with calcium supplements. Calcium in food doesn't have an effect on your risk of kidney stones. Continue eating calcium-rich foods unless your doctor advises otherwise.

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