Inida's coastline spanning 7,600 kilometres. India has nine coastal states Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and West Bengal. These states are home to all major and minor ports of India. Here are the list of top ten major ports in India.
1) Kandala Port, Kutch, Gujarat, India : Constructed in the 1950s and located on the Gulf of Kutch, Kandla Port is near to the Gandhidham city of Kutch District of Gujarat. The Port of Kandla is the first special economic zone in India as well as in Asia. Kandla was constructed in the 1950s as the chief seaport serving western India, after the partition of India from Pakistan left the port of Karachi in Pakistan. It has handled almost 80,000 tonnes of cargo from April 2009 to March 2010. It is hub for major imports like petroleum, chemicals and iron also export grains,salt and textiles thus it is one of the highest earning ports of India.
2) Nhava Sheva Port, Navi Mumbai Maharashtra : I naugurated on 26 May 1989 to relieve pressure on Mumbai Port , Nhava Sheva Port spread over 10 square kilometres which is one of the largest ports in the world. This port is also known as Jawaharlal Nehru Port which is the is the largest container port in India. Located in Arabian Sea near two villages Nhava and Sheva this port became Nhava Sheva Port. Nhava Sheva is well connected to major highways and rail networks in India. It has handled almost 6,07,46,000 tonnes of cargo from April 2009 to March 2010.
3) Visakhapatnam Port, Andhra Pradesh : Popularly known as Vizag is situated in southeast coast of India and it is also home to the Eastern Naval Command of the Indian Navy. IT is one of the busiest ports in India and has striking similarities with Durban Port of Africa in the sense that the later is also surrounded by a hill on the south side. Visakhapatnam or Vizag has one of the India's largest seaport and the oldest shipyard of country. The Visakhapatnam harbors is the only Natural harbors in the bay of Bengal shore. Visakhapatnam Port is the only Indian port having three International accreditations -ISO9001, ISO14001, OHSAS18001. It has handled almost 6,55,01,000 tonnes of cargo from April 2009 to March 2010.
4) Chennai Port, Tamil Nadu : Formerly known as Madras Port or Chennai Port is the one of the oldest port of India and the second largest port in the country in the Bay of Benga which is a emerging business hub port on the east coast of India. This port share of Iron ore export from India is 12 per cent. It has handled almost 6,10,57,000 tonnes of cargo from April 2009 to March 2010. The Chennai port is one among the major ports having terminal shunting yard and running their own Railway operations inside the harbour on the east coast.
5) Tuticorin Port, Tamil Nadu : Declared to be a major port on 11 July 1974, V.O.Chidambaram Port Trust which is formerly known as Tuticorin Port Trust is one of the 12 major ports in India. The artificial port of Tuticorin is a all weather port and who receive a large volume of international traffic. Tuticorin Port is an artificial deep-sea harbour formed with rubble mound-type parallel breakwaters projecting into the sea for about 4 km. Tuticorin is the only port in South India to provide a direct weekly container service to the United States. The transit time to the United States is 22 days. It has handled almost 2,37,87,000 tonnes of cargo from April 2009 to March 2010.
6) Cochin Port, Kerala : Located on the south west coast of India and established in 1926, Cochin Port lies on two islands of Willingdon and Vallarpadam. It is one of the largest port in India and the major port on the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean sea route. Kochi Port is equipped with maritime facilities Cochin Shipyard,Kochi Refineries and Kochi Marina. The port attracted European colonialists like Portuguese, Dutch and finally British who extended their supremacy over Kochi Kingdom and the port city of Fort Kochi. It has handled almost 1,74,29,000 tonnes of cargo from April 2009 to March 2010.
7) New Mangalore Port, Karnataka : Formerly known as Panambur Port and now New Mangalore Port is loacted near to Surathkal railway station in Dakshina Kannada district of Karnataka which was inaugurated by the then Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi, on January 11, 1975. Its is deep water all weather port. Port of Mangalore export major commodities like manganese, granite stones, coffee and cashew and main imports includes timber logs,LPG,petroleum products and cargo containers. It has handled almost 3,55,28,000 tonnes of cargo from April 2009 to March 2010.
8) Marmagao port, Goa : One of the oldest ports on the west coast of India, Marmagao port of Goa is a best natural harbors of India. Mormugao was declared a major port of India in 1964. Marmagao port is one of the leading iron ores exporter port in India and raw materials too.The port of Marmagao is one of the major attraction of Goa along with the beautiful city of Vasco da Gama and international airport Dabolim. It has handled almost 4,88,47,000 tonnes of cargo from April 2009 to March 2010.
9) Kolkata Port, Andaman : Formerly known as Haldia port, Kolkata Port is the oldest major port in the country. It is the only riverine port with two dock systems - Kolkata dock system at Kolkata with the oil wharves at Baj Baj and a deep water dock system at Haldia dock complex. Kolkata Dock System is situated on the left bank of the river Hooghly and has a comprehensive range of facilities to handle and transport various cargo including heavy lifts. It has handled almost 4,62,95,000 tonnes of cargo from April 2009 to March 2010.
10) Paradip Port, Orissa : Also spelt as Paradeep, this port is situated in Jagatsinghpur district of Odisha or Orissa. This major ports serving the eastern and central parts of the country. The port mainly deals with bulk cargo apart from other clean cargoes. This is India's one of the artificial, deep-water port. Paradip Port has its own railway system,cold handling plant and a national highway connects the port with rest of Indian road networks. It has handled almost 5,70,11,000 tonnes of cargo from April 2009 to March 2010.