Chittaranjan Das as an Indian lawyer and poet who became a nationalist leader. His main aim was swaraj, or self-rule, for India.Fondly, he was called “Deshbandu” by near and dear ones.
Chittaranjan Das was born in Calcutta on Nov. 5, 1870, into a progressive Brahmo family. His father, Bhuben Mohan Daswas a lawyer and journalist who edited the English church weekly, The Brahmo Public Opinion.His mother's name was Nistarini Devi.Das developed a logical mind owing to his father and a liberal outlook and a deep sense of hospitality owing to his mother. As a child, Das was deeply imbued with patriotism and recited patriotic poems. After school, Das entered the Presidency College.He excelled at English but did poorly in Mathematics. Das developed a keen interest in Bengali literature and read most works of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee and Rabindranath Tagore. After completed graduation in 1890 he went to England where he became a Barrister, his public career began in 1909 when he successfully defended Aurobindo Ghosh on charges of involvement in the previous year's Alipore bomb case.
He was a leading figure in Bengal during the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1919-1922, and initiated the ban on British clothes, setting an example by burning his own European clothes and wearing Khadi clothes. He brought out a newspaper called Forward and later changed its name to Liberty to fight the British Raj. When the Calcutta Corporation was formed, he became its first Mayor. He resigned his presidency of the Indian National Congress at the Gaya session after losing a motion on "No Council Entry" to Gandhi's faction.
Besides being an astute lawyer, Das was a literary man. He has works like Mala and Antaryami (poems expressing religious spirit and devotion), and Kishore Kishori (poem expressing the eternal love between Lord Krishna and Radha). Along with Aurobindo Ghosh, he founded the famous journal Bande Mataram. He was also the editor in chief of the journal Forward, a mouthpiece of the Swaraj party.
He founded the Swaraj Party, with Motilal Nehru in 1923, to express his immoderate opinions.He was a believer of non-violence and constitutional methods for the realization of national independence, and advocated communal harmony and championed the cause of national education. His legacy was carried forward by his disciples, and notably by Subhash Chandra Bose. He is generally referred to by the honorific Deshbandhu meaning "comrade of the nation."
In 1925, Das's health began to fail and in May he withdrew to a mountain home in Darjeeling, where Mahatma Gandhi visited him. On 16 June 1925, with a severe fever, he died. The funeral procession in Calcutta was led by Gandhi, who said: Deshbandhu was one of the greatest of men... He dreamed... and talked of freedom of India and of nothing else... His heart knew no difference between Hindus and Mussalmans and I should like to tell Englishmen, too, that he bore no ill-will to them.
Deshbandhu's home was converted to a hospital for women and is called Chittranjan Seva Sadan.