Soil Erosion is a major environmental and agricultural problem worldwide. It is also a major environmental threat to the sustainability and productive capacity of agriculture. Erosion is the process by which soil and rock are removed from the Earth's surface by natural processes such as wind or water flow, and then transported and deposited in other locations. There are two different types of soil erosion - Water and Wind. Soil erosion from water comes in the form of rain and runoff. When the rain falls, it can break up the particles of the soil, (especially fine sand and silt) and disperse them. This destruction of soil increases with thunderstorms, or heavy rain. Wind erosion may create adverse operating conditions in the field. Crops can be totally ruined so that costly delay and reseeding is necessary - or the plants may be sandblasted and set back with a resulting decrease in yield, loss of quality, and market value. The main cause of soil erosion is the removal of vegetation. Vegetation removal takes place due to removal of forest covers. Unscientific farming has also led to barren lands. The removal of vegetation exposes the topsoil to water and wind. Water and wind cause the topsoil to be removed.
The Effect Of Soil Erosion On Our Earth :
1) Soil erosion results in the loss of soil fertility and makes the land barren. There are more than 25 million hectares of barren lands in the world now.
2) Soil erosion also leads to desertification. Desertification refers to increase of desert areas.
3) About 60 percent of soil that is washed away ends up in rivers, streams and lakes, making waterways more prone to flooding and to contamination from soil's fertilizers and pesticides.
4) Soil erosion also reduces the ability of soil to store water and support plant growth, thereby reducing its ability to support biodiversity.
5) Erosion promotes critical losses of water, nutrients, soil organic matter and soil biota, harming forests, rangeland and natural ecosystems.
6) Erosion increases the amount of dust carried by wind, which not only acts as an abrasive and air pollutant but also carries about 20 human infectious disease organisms, including anthrax and tuberculosis.
How to Control Soil Erosion : Erosion control is the practice of preventing or controlling wind or water erosion in agriculture, land development and construction. Effective erosion controls are important techniques in preventing water pollution and soil loss. Erosion controls are used in natural areas, agricultural settings or urban environments.
1) Use land in accordance with its capability.
2) Protect the soil surface with some form of cover
3) Control runoff before it develops into an erosive force.
4) Grow more trees
5) By growing grasslands.
6) By providing proper drainage system in the fields.
7) By terrace cultivation on sloping fields.
8) By control of grazing.