Water pollution can be defined in many ways. Usually, it means one or more substances have built up in water to such an extent that they cause problems for animals or people. Oceans, lakes, rivers, and other inland waters can naturally clean up a certain amount of pollution by dispersing it harmlessly.
Water pollution is all about quantities: how much of a polluting substance is released and how big a volume of water it is released into. A small quantity of a toxic chemical may have little impact if it is spilled into the ocean from a ship. But the same amount of the same chemical can have a much bigger impact pumped into a lake or river, where there is less clean water to disperse it.
Over two thirds of Earth's surface is covered by water; less than a third is taken up by land. As Earth's population continues to grow, people are putting ever-increasing pressure on the planet's water resources.
Water Pollution refers to the contamination of various Water bodies like Lakes, Rivers, and Oceans etc by harmful substances that have a destructive effect on the Aquatic Species as well as on life as a whole on earth. Over the years Water Pollution is turning out to be the biggest environmental concern as nearly 14,000 deaths are recorded daily due to it.
Here are the ten major causes of water pollution :
1) Dumping of industrial wastes, containing heavy metals, harmful chemicals, by-products, organic toxins and oils, into the nearby source of water is one of the visible causes of water pollution.
2) Another cause for the contamination of water is the improper disposal of human and animal wastes.
3) Effluents from factories, refineries, injection wells and sewage treatment plants are dumped into urban water supplies, leading to water pollution.
4) A number of pollutants, both harmful and poisonous, enter the groundwater systems through rain water.
5) The residue of agricultural practices, including fertilizers and pesticides, are some of the major sources of water pollution.
6) Untreated pollutants are drained into the nearest water body, such as stream, lake or harbor, causing water pollution.
7) Another major source of water pollution comprises of organic farm wastes. When farm land, treated with pesticides and fertilizers, is irrigated, the excess nitrogen and poisons get mixed into the water supply, thereby contaminating it.
8) Pathogens, sediments and chemical pollutants are other sources of water pollution.
9) The corporeal wastes produced by humans and farmed organisms pollute rivers, lakes, oceans and other surface waters.
10) Leftover medications are increasingly contaminating our urban wastewater and downstream rivers and streams.
There is no easy way to solve water pollution; if there were, it wouldn't be so much of a problem. There are several steps that can be taken to help prevent water pollution from getting worse. Here are some of those :
1) Making people aware of the problem is the first step to solving it.
2) Most environmental experts agree that the best way to tackle pollution is through something called the polluter pays principle. This means that whoever causes pollution should have to pay to clean it up, one way or another.
3) Erosion is one of the biggest causes of water pollution today. We can take steps to conserve soil through which we can yalso conserving water and water life
4) Just picking up waste and litter wherever it is spotted can go a long way to keeping debris and pollutants out of the water.
5) Avoid Plastics When Possible
6) Dispose of unwanted prescription medications.
7) Help teach the next generation to be cleaner than we have been. Get them involved with you in cleaning up our pollution mess, and/or creating a cleaner lifestyle.
8) Keep an eye out for dumped raw materials and report them to the manufacturer.
9) Make it a point to locate and use the trash bins on beaches, public parks, and city streets
10) Buy less and reuse more to minimize discarded packaging.