India is the home of hundreds of species of mammals, reptiles, and thousands of birds. The varied climate and landscape make it an ideal place for the wildlife. The rivers and the dense forests of the western Ghats add to the ecosystem, encouraging further growth. Here are few of famous animals in India.
1) Asiatic Black Bear : The Asian black bear, also known as the moon bear or white-chested bear, is a medium-sized species of bear, largely adapted for arboreal life, seen across much of the Himalayas and the northern parts of the Indian Subcontinent, Korea, northeastern China, the Russian far east and the Honshu and Shikoku islands of Japan. The Asiatic black bear is a medium sized bear with a body length of 50- 74 inches and they weigh between 220- 440 pounds. The bear's life span is around 25 years. Females are smaller than males. They are normally blackish in color, with lighter muzzles and a distinct V-shaped patch of cream colored fur on their chest. The Asiatic Black Bear is an omnivore which consumes a great variety of foods. They eat insects, small mammals and birds, carrion, bee nests, and fruit.
2) Asiatic Golden Cat : The Asian golden cat also called the Asiatic golden cat and Temminck's cat, is a medium-sized wild cat of Southeastern Asia. In 2008, the IUCN classified Asian golden cats as Near Threatened, stating that the species comes close to qualifying as Vulnerable due to hunting pressure and habitat loss, since Southeast Asian forests are undergoing the world's fastest regional deforestation rates. he Asian Golden Cat lives throughout Southeast Asia, ranging from Tibet and Nepal to Southern China, India, and Sumatra. It prefers forest habitat and is found in deciduous, subtropical evergreen, and tropical rainforests. Asiatic Golden Cats weighs around 12- 16 kilograms. They are around 90 cm in length. In captivity this species can live up to 20 years, but its average lifespan in the wild is likely far shorter. The Asiatic Golden Cat prefers to hunt on the ground, but does climb when it needs to. It is known to hunt birds, lizards, rodents, and the occasional small or young deer, and seems to be quite adaptable in its diet.
3) Assam Macaque : The Assam macaque is a macaque of the Old World monkey family native to South and Southeast Asia. Since 2008, the species is listed as Near Threatened by IUCN, as it is experiencing significant declines due to hunting, habitat degradation and fragmentation. Assam Macaque is a diurnal primate. They are found only in India, Nepal, Vietnam and southern China. It inhabits in forests of tropical and subtropical mountainous regions, generally forming groups of 10 to 30. Assam Macaques are also known by the name of Himalayan Macaque and Hill Monkeys in India. They are 50 to 73 cm in length and their tail, about 1/3rd of the size of the body. It is 19 to 38 cm long. Their weight is around 12 to 14 kilograms. The Assam Macaques feed on fruits, leaves, invertebrates and cereals. Two sub species of Assam Macaque are also found. They are, Eastern Assamese Macaque and Western Assamese Macaque.
4) Bengal Fox : The Bengal fox, also known as the Indian fox, is a fox endemic to the Indian subcontinent and is found from the Himalayan foothills and Terai of Nepal through southern India and from southern and eastern Pakistan to eastern India and southeastern Bangladesh. The species is found throughout much of the Indian subcontinent with the exception of the wet forests and the extreme arid zone. The distribution is bounded by the Himalayan range and the Indus river valley. The preferred habitat is short open grassland, scrub or thorn forest. They appear to avoid steep terrain, tall grassland. Indian foxes were considered to be habitat generalists, but recent studies have shown a strong preference for semi-arid short grassland habitats at multiple scales. The Bengal fox is a medium sized fox. Their coat is fawn orange colored with paler under parts and a black tip on its tail. Back of ears are dark brown with black margin. Its head and body length is 46"61 cm, with a 25"36 cm long tail. It weighs around 2-4 kg. The Bengal Fox feeds on rodents, reptiles, crabs, termites, insects, small birds, and fruits. The Bengal Fox is basically facing a great threat. It is being hunted for its skin and also its body parts are used for making medicines.
5) Barasingha : The barasingha or swamp deer is a deer species currently found in isolated localities in northern and central India, and southwestern Nepal, and is extinct in Pakistan and Bangladesh. The specific name commemorates the French naturalist Alfred Duvaucel. Barasinghas used to inhabit the basins of the Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers, as well as central India as far as the Godavari River. Bones over a thousand years old have been found in the Langhanj site in Gujarat. Today, barasinghas have disappeared entirely from the western part of their range. In 1964, the total population in India was estimated at 3000 to 4000 individuals. In the Terai, they mainly live in marshland. In central India, they live in grasslands in the proximity of forests. They feed mainly on grass and leaves. The wetland subspecies of Barasingha also eats aquatic plants. Barasingha are active in nature and graze during both the day and the night. Their herds usually consist of 10 - 20 members.
6) Black Rat : The black rat is a common long-tailed rodent of the genus Rattus in the subfamily Murinae. The species originated in tropical Asia and spread through the Near East in Roman times before reaching Europe by the 1st century and spreading with Europeans across the world. Black rats are considered omnivores and eat a wide range of foods, including seeds, fruit, stems, leaves, fungi, and a variety of invertebrates and vertebrates. They are generalists, and thus not very specific in their food preferences, which is indicated by their tendency to feed on any meal provided for cows, swine, chickens, cats, and dogs. They are similar to the tree squirrel in their preference of fruits and nuts. They eat about 15 grams per day and drink about 15 ml per day. Although rats are considered to be dirty and unhygienic, frequenting sewers and other such places, the black rat is cleaner in its eating habits than the brown, and spends much time grooming its fur, tail and paws.
7) Caracal : he Caracal, also called Persian Lynx or African Lynx, is a fiercely territorial medium-sized cat. The Caracal is labeled as a small cat, but is amongst the heaviest of all small cats, as well as the fastest. The caracal is distributed over Africa, the Middle East, Pakistan and India. Its chief habitat is dry steppes and semideserts, but it also inhabits woodlands, savannah, and scrub forest. They generally prefer open country, so long as there is sufficient cover, in the form of bushes and rocks, from which to ambush prey. A caracal has a long slender body, long legs and a narrowing tail which is about a third as long as its body. Its head and body length are as long as 35 inches and it weighs to the maximum of 40 pounds. The caracal is largely nocturnal but is sometimes seen by day. The caracal is renowned for catching low-flying birds. The caracal diet includes birds, rodents, and other small mammals.
8) Common Palm Civet : The Asian palm civet, also called toddy cat, is a small member of the Viverridae family native to South and Southeast Asia. In 2008, the IUCN classified the species as Least Concern as it is tolerant of a broad range of habitats, is widely distributed with large populations that are unlikely to be declining. Asian palm civets are native to India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Singapore, Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei Darussalam, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, China, Philippines and the Indonesian islands of Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan, Bawean and Siberut. They were introduced to Irian Jaya, the Lesser Sunda Islands, Maluku, Sulawesi and Japan. In Papua New Guinea, their presence is uncertain. The Common Palm Civet has an average weight of around 3.2 kg. It has a body length of 53 cm and a tail length of 48 cm. The common palm civet has coarse, bushy hair that is usually grayish in color. It has three rows of black markings on its body. Their body is stocky and long.
The Common Palm Civet is a nocturnal omnivore. It feeds mostly on berries, fleshy fruits, and the fruit of Ficus trees. It also eats birds, rodents and insects.
9) Chinkara : The Chinkara is a species of gazelle found in South Asia. These are basically found in grasslands and desert areas in India, parts of Iran, Pakistan and Bangladesh. It is also known as the Indian Gazelle. The life expectancy of a Chinkara is between 12 to 15 years. Its total height is 65 cm and weigh around 23 kg. Males have short horns. Horns of the females are soft or missing. Its summer coat is warm biscuit or reddish in colour, with smooth glossy fur. In winter the white belly or throat fur is in greater contrast. One of the unique characteristics of the chinkara is that it can survive without water for days at a stretch. They feed upon grass and fruit. By nature, chinkara is considered to be a shy and nervous animal. Chinkara is widely distributed in India. It is mostly found in Rajasthan, north western and central parts of India. They could also be spotted in the Bandhavgarh and Ranthambore National Park. Their diet include all types of vegetation. The feed on grass, leaves and wild fruits. They can live without water for longer period of time.
10) Chital : The chital or cheetal also known as chital deer, spotted deer or axis deer is a deer which commonly inhabits wooded regions of Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, and in small numbers in Pakistan. The western limt of its range is eastern Rajasthan and Gujarat. The northern limit is along the bhabar-terai belt of the foothills of the Himalaya and from Uttar Pradesh and Uttaranchal through to Nepal, northern West Bengal and Sikkim and then to western Assam and the forested valleys of Bhutan which are below 1,100 m asl. The chital goes by various names in India, among which include: Chital horin in Bengali, Thith Muwa in Sinhalese, Jinke in Kannada, Pulli Maan in Tamil and Malayalam, Duppi in Telugu, Phutuki Horin in Assamese, Haran/Harin in Marathi, and Hiran in Hindi/Urdu (the latter two derived from Harini, the Sanskrit cognate for 'deer'). It is the most common deer species in Indian forests. The name Chital comes from the Bengali word Chitral, which means "spotted". They grow to a height of approximately 90 cm at the shoulders and can weigh up to 85 kgs. Their life expectancy ranges from 20 - 30 years. Its coat is reddish fawn, marked with white spots, and its under parts are white. Its antlers, which it sheds annually, are usually three-pronged and curve in a lyre shape and may extend to 75 cm. Chital eat primarily grasses and vegetation, but also eat their shed antlers as a source of nutrients.
11) Cobra : Cobra is any of various species of venomous snakes usually belonging to the family Elapidae, most of which can expand their neck ribs to form a widened hood. The Indian cobra is native to the Indian subcontinent which includes present day Nepal, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. It can be found in plains, jungles, open fields and the regions heavily populated by people. Its distribution ranges from sea-level up to 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) above sea-level. This species normally feed on rodents, toads, frogs, birds and other snakes. Its diet of rats leads it to areas inhabited by humans including farms and outskirts of urban areas. Cobras come in varying colors from black or dark brown to yellowish white. Most species have relatively poor eyesight and hunt at dusk or at night. An exception is the king cobra, which is active in the daytime and can see objects over 100 m away. Male cobras are typically larger than females. Among the most notable attributes of the Cobra is their powerful venom
12) Clouded Leopard : The clouded leopard is a felid found from the Himalayan foothills through mainland Southeast Asia into China, and has been classified as vulnerable in 2008 by IUCN. Its total population size is suspected to be fewer than 10,000 mature individuals, with a decreasing population trend and no single population numbering more than 1,000 adults. Clouded leopards are native to Indochina, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Myanmar, Bhutan, Bangladesh, India, and Nepal. They are regionally extinct in Taiwan, and occur marginally in mixed-evergreen forests of the northeastern and southeastern parts of Bangladesh. In the Himalayan foothills of eastern India they have been recorded up to an altitude of 1,450 m (4,760 ft). In Assam, they have been observed in forests but have not been recorded in protected areas. They occur in northern West Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura. They have been reported from relatively open, dry tropical forest in Myanmar and Thailand. They prefer open- or closed-forest habitats to other habitat types. The Clouded Leopard has a large build and they weigh around 35- 50 lbs. The clouded leopard is a carnivore. Its prey includes the sambar, deer, birds, bearded pigs, civet, monkeys, gibbons, squirrels, porcupines, fish, domestic cattle and chic
13) Deer : Deer are the most ancient of all the ruminants and are mostly found in the forests or in the open grasslands. Deer are mammals that belong to the family Cervidae. They are one of the most beautiful creatures on this earth and extend to approximately 34 species. Male deer grow and shed new antlers each year. Male deer, in India as well as the world, are known as stags, harts, bucks or bulls, depending upon the species to which they belong. While, the females are known as hinds, does or cows. One can find deer widely distributed throughout the world, including the Indian subcontinent. Deer are selective feeders and they primarily feed upon leaves. Deer generally eats easily digestible shoots, young leaves, fresh grasses, soft twigs, fruit, fungi, and lichens.
14) Desert Jird : The Desert Jird is a species of Jird found mainly in the Thar Desert in India. These species are mainly found in Rajasthan and Gujarat. Jirds are closely related to gerbils. The Indian desert jird has a grey-brown coat with yellowish-grey belly. It is approximately 12"14 centimetres (4.7"5.5 in) long and has a tail 10"15 cm (3.9"5.9 in) long. The distinguishing characteristics include short ears, long black claws and orange incisors. Jirds are closely related to gerbils but are differentiated by the absence of long hind feet and the characteristic erect posture of a gerbil. The tail is generally shorter than the head and body in a jird. It also has much shorter ears. In addition, the Indian desert jird is diurnal, in comparison to the three common gerbil species found in India which are nocturnal. The desert jird have another unusual feature, i.e. they have the ability to store water and release the water within whenever required.
15) Elephant : The Indian elephant is one of three recognized subspecies of the Asian elephant, and native to mainland Asia. Since 1986, Elephas maximus has been listed as endangered by IUCN as the population has declined by at least 50% over the last three generations, estimated to be 60"75 years. The species is pre-eminently threatened by habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation. Indian Elephants are the largest land-dwelling mammals on earth. They are brown to dark gray in color and have long, coarse hairs sparsely covering their bodies. Elephants are recognized by their long nose, or trunk. Elephant's trunks serve as another limb. There are two distinct species of elephants: the African elephant and the Asian elephants. There are a number of differences between the two species - overall size, ear size, tusks and shape of the back and forehead among others. It has been estimated that there are around 450,000 - 700,000 African elephants and 35,000 - 40,000 wild Asian elephants. African forest elephants inhabit the dense rain forests of west and central Africa while the Asian elephants are found in India, Sri Lanka, China and in many parts of Southeast Asia. The elephants eat staples grasses, leaves, bamboo, bark, roots. They also enjoy feasting upon bananas and sugarcane. Elephants are considered to be extremely intelligent animals and have memories that span for many years.
16) Four horned Antelope : The four-horned antelope is among the smallest Asian bovids, standing just 55 to 64 cm (22 to 25 in) tall at the shoulder, and weighing 17 to 22 kg (37 to 49 lb). It has a generally slender build, with thin legs and a short tail. The coat is yellow-brown or reddish, fading to a whitish colour on the underparts and the insides of the legs. A black stripe of hair runs down the anterior surface of each leg, with black patches on the muzzle and the backs of the ears. Females have four teats, located far back on the abdomen. Most wild four-horned antelope are found in India, with small, isolated populations in Nepal. Their range extends south of the Gangetic plains down to the state of Tamilnadu, and east as far as Orissa. They also occur in the Gir Forest National Park of western India. Four-horned Antelope live in dry deciduous forests and are solitary creatures.
17) Ganges River Dolphin : The Ganges river dolphin is primarily found in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers and their tributaries in Bangladesh, India and Nepal, while the Indus river dolphin is found in the Indus River in Pakistan and its Beas and Sutlej tributaries. From the 1970s until 1998, they were regarded as separate species; however, in 1998, their classification was changed from two separate species to subspecies of a single species. The Ganges river dolphin has been recognized by the government of India as its National Aquatic Animal.The Ganges subspecies can be found along the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna and Karnaphuli-Sangu river systems of Bangladesh and India, although its range formerly extended to Nepal. A small subpopulation can be still found on the Ghaghara River and possibly the Sapta Kosi River. The majority of the Indus subspecies is located between the Sukkur and Guddu barrage in the Sind Province of Pakistan. Two smaller subpopulations have also been recorded in the Punjab and North-West Frontier Provinces. The Ganges River Dolphin has a sturdy, yet flexible, body with large flippers and a low triangular dorsal fin. It weighs upto 150 kg. The calves are chocolate brown at birth and becomes greyish brown in adulthood with a smooth and hairless skin. Females are larger than males. The maximum size of a female is 2.67m and of a male 2.12 m. Females attain sexual maturity at an age of 10-12 years, while the males mature earlier. The gestation period is 9-11 months and a female gives birth to only one calf, once in 2-3 years.
18) Beech Marten : The beech marten, also known as the stone marten or white breasted marten, is a species of marten native to much of Europe and Central Asia, though it has established a feral population in North America. It is listed as Least Concern by the IUCN on account of its wide distribution, its large population, and its presence in a number of protected areas. It is superficially similar to the pine marten, but differs from it by its smaller size and habitat preferences. While the pine marten is a forest specialist, the beech marten is a more generalist and adaptable species, occurring in a number of open and forest habitats. The beech marten is a widespread species which occurs throughout much of Europe and Central Asia. It occurs from Spain and Portugal in the west, through Central and Southern Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia, extending as far east as the Altai and Tien Shan mountains and northwest China. Within Europe, the species is absent in the British Isles, Scandinavian peninsula, Finland, the northern Baltic and northern European Russia. It occurs in Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan and was recently confirmed to inhabit northern Burma. They grow to a size of 40 to 50 cm in body length and weigh up to two kilograms. Their brown coats have a forked white marking at the throat, which distinguishes them in appearance. They generally stay in the rocky and deciduous forests that are not densely planted. They live inside of hollow trees, rocky crevices, and abandoned burrows. Beech martens sleep in cover during the day, and hunt for food in the twilight. They are omnivores and their diet includes smaller mammals, earthworms, eggs, and fruit.
19) Bonnet Macaque : The bonnet macaque is a macaque endemic to southern India. Its distribution is limited by the Indian Ocean on three sides and the Godavari and Tapti Rivers along with a related competing species of rhesus macaque in the north. Land use changes in last few decades have resulted in changes in its distribution boundaries with the rhesus macaque, raising concern for its status in the wild. They have a dusky brown to golden yellow body, black ears and black lower lip. The female's face is red. The body length of Bonnet Macaques varies from 35-60cm, with a tail length of 35-68cm. The Bonnet Macaque feeds on fruits, nuts, seeds, flowers, invertebrates and cereals. Bonnet macaques often sleep in fig trees near human settlements, as well as tall trees with dense foliage. They are diurnal, and spend their time in the trees and on the ground. Bonnet Macaque is a social being and lives in groups. There can be up to 12 males in a group and the number of females can go up to 15.
20) Gaur (Indian Bishon) : The gaur, also called Indian bison, is a large bovine native to South Asia and Southeast Asia. The species is listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List since 1986 as the population decline in parts of the species' range is likely to be well over 70% over the last three generations. Population trends are stable in well-protected areas, and are rebuilding in a few areas which had been neglected. The gaur is the largest species of wild cattle, bigger than the African buffalo, the extinct aurochs, and wild water buffalo. The domesticated form of the gaur, Bos frontalis, is called gayal or mithun. The Malayan gaur is called seladang, and the Burmese gaur is called pyoung. Gaur historically occurred throughout mainland South and Southeast Asia, including Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, China, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, and India. Today, the species is seriously fragmented within its range, and regionally extinct in Sri Lanka. Gaur are largely confined to evergreen forests or semi-evergreen and moist deciduous forests, but also occur in deciduous forest areas at the periphery of their range. Gaur habitat is characterized by large, relatively undisturbed forest tracts, hilly terrain below an altitude of 5,000 to 6,000 ft (1,500 to 1,800 m), availability of water, and an abundance of forage in the form of grasses, bamboo, shrubs, and trees. Their apparent preference for hilly terrain may be partly due to the earlier conversion of most of the plains and other low-lying areas to croplands and pastures.
21) Gee's Golden Langur : Gee's golden langur, or simply the golden langur, is an Old World monkey found in a small region of western Assam, India and in the neighboring foothills of the Black Mountains of Bhutan. It is one of the most endangered primate species of India. Long considered sacred by many Himalayan people, the Golden Langur was first brought to the attention of science by the naturalist E. P. Gee in the 1950s. In a part of Bhutan, it has hybridised with the Capped Langur T. pileatus. The regions of its distribution are very small; the main region is limited to an area approximately 60 miles square bounded on the south by the Brahmaputra river, on the east by the Manas river, on the west by the Sankosh river, all in Assam, India, and on the north by the Black Mountains of Bhutan. These biogeographical barriers are believed to have led to the radiation of species from the closely related Capped Langur. The Golden Langur is known for its rich golden to bright cream hair, a black face and a very long tail measuring up to 50 cm in length. The long tail of the golden langur helps it in balancing itself while jumping across the branches of trees. The Golden langur is herbivorous and its diet mainly consists of ripe and unripe fruits, mature and young leaves, seeds, buds and flowers. These Golden Langurs are social animals and so they live in groups of 8 to 50 members. They are considered to be the endangered species and their current population is around 10,000 only.
22) Golden Jackal : The golden jackal, also known as the common jackal, Asiatic jackal, gold-wolf is a Canid of the genus Canis indigenous to north and northeastern Africa, southeastern and central Europe (up to Austria and Hungary), Asia Minor, the Middle East and southeast Asia. It is classed by the IUCN as Least Concern, due to its widespread range in areas with optimum food and shelter. Despite its name, the golden jackal is not closely related to other jackal species, with morphological and molecular studies indicating a greater affinity to the grey wolf and coyote. The Golden Jackal is generally 70"105 centimeters in length. Its average weight is 7"15 kilograms with males tending to be heavier than the females. The Golden Jackal is an opportunistic feeder with a diet which consists of 54% animal food and 46% plant food. It is a very capable hunter of small to medium sized prey such as rabbits, rodents, birds, insects, fish and monkeys. The golden jackal is also a great scavenger.
23) Hanuman Langur : Gray langurs or Hanuman langurs, the most widespread langurs of South Asia, are a group of Old World monkeys constituting the entirety of the genus Semnopithecus. All taxa have traditionally been placed in the single species Semnopithecus entellus. In 2001, it was recommended that several distinctive former subspecies should be given full species status, so that seven species are recognized. A taxonomic classification with fewer species has also been proposed. The Hanuman Langur is adapted to eating tough food which others find indigestible. They are largely gray in color, with a black face. The males are up to 75 cm long, and females 65 cm. With long strong limbs, the Hanuman Langur runs fast on the ground on all fours, and climbs well and is agile among trees with its long thin tail providing balance. They sleep at the ends of branches, where it's hard for a large predator to get at them. They have a life span of about 20 years but in captivity they can live for 25 years. The Hanuman Langur feed on leaves, fruit, buds and flowers. Their diet is highly seasonable. At times, they also supplement their diet with insects, tree bark and gum.
24) Himalayan Tahr : The Himalayan tahr is one of three species of tahr. Other tahrs are the Arabian tahr of Oman, and the Nilgiri tahr of southern India. The Himalayan tahr is a relative of the wild goat and is specially adapted to life on the rugged mountain slopes and montane woodlands of the Himalayas. Its native habitat is in the rugged wooded hills and mountain slopes of the Himalaya in Nepal from Central Asia in northern Kashmir to China. It spends the summers grazing in high pastures, then comes down the mountains and forms mixed-sex herds in the winter. It was first identified by Charles Hamilton Smith and included in Cuvier's Animal Kingdom, 1827. Himalayan tahrs have relatively short legs and small heads with large eyes and small pointed ears. Males are larger than females; they weigh between 79 and 198 pounds. They are 26-40 inches at the shoulder, and 4-5 ft long. In the winter the tahr has dense, reddish to dark brown woolly fur with a thick undercoat, which keeps it warm. They live in herds of 2 to 23 individuals. Himalayan tahrs are herbivores that eat snow tussock, alpine herbs and sub alpine scrubland plants. The tahr is a ruminant and has a multi-chambered stomach.
25) Hispid Hare : The hispid hare, also called Assam rabbit is a leporid native to South Asia, whose historic range extended along the southern foothills of the Himalayas. Today, the habitat of hispid hares is highly fragmented with an area of occupancy of less than 500 km2 (190 sq mi) extending over an estimated area of 5,000 to 20,000 km2 (1,900 to 7,700 sq mi). Populations experience a continuing decline in suitable habitat due to increasing agriculture, flood control, and human development. The historic range of hispid hares extended from Uttar Pradesh through southern Nepal, the northern region of West Bengal to Assam and into Bangladesh. Today, distribution is sporadic in Bangladesh, India, Nepal and possibly Bhutan. They occupy tracts of early successional tall grasslands and take refuge in marshy areas or grasses adjacent to river banks during the dry season, when these areas are susceptible to burning. It weighs about 2.5 kg. It prefers tall grass scrub savanna, well-drained and thinly forested place. Its diet mainly consists of bark, shoots and roots of grasses, including thatch species, and occasionally crops. The hispid hare does not construct burrows but takes shelter in the surface vegetation or burrows made by other animals. They are generally described as slow moving and lazy animals.
26) Hoolock Gibbon : The hoolock gibbons (Hoolock), also known as hoolocks, are two primate species from the family of the gibbons. Hoolocks are the second-largest of the gibbons, after the siamang. They reach a size of 60 to 90 cm and weigh 6 to 9 kg. The sexes are about the same size, but they differ considerably in coloration: males are black-colored with remarkable white brows, while females have a grey-brown fur, which is darker at the chest and neck. White rings around their eyes and mouths give their faces a mask-like appearance. Hoolocks grow to a height of 60- 90 cm and they weigh around 6- 9 kg. The males are black colored with remarkable white brows, while females have a grey-brown fur, which is darker at the chest and neck. White rings around the eyes and around the mouth give their face a mask-like appearance. The hoolock gibbon is arboreal and diurnal. The Hoolock is frugivorous in nature. Its diet contains fruit, leaves, flowers, tender buds and insects, with mostly ripe fruit, young leaves and infected figs.
27) Indian Leopard : The Indian leopard is a leopard subspecies widely distributed on the Indian subcontinent and classified as Near Threatened by IUCN since 2008. The species Panthera pardus may soon qualify for the Vulnerable status due to habitat loss and fragmentation, heavy poaching for the illegal trade of skins and body parts in Asia, and persecution due to conflict situations. They are becoming increasingly rare outside protected areas. The trend of the population is decreasing. The Indian leopard is one of the five big cats found in India, apart from Asiatic lion, Bengal tiger, snow leopard and clouded leopard. On the Indian subcontinent, topographical barriers to the dispersal of this subspecies are the Indus River in the west, and the Himalayas in the north. In the east, the lower course of the Brahmaputra and the Ganges Delta form natural barriers to the distribution of the Indo-Chinese leopard. Indian leopards are distributed all over India, in Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and parts of Pakistan. They inhabit tropical rain forests, dry deciduous forests, temperate forests and northern coniferous forests up to an altitude of 2,500 metres (8,200 ft) above sea level, bordering snow leopard habitat. But they do not inhabit the mangrove forests of the Sundarbans. These cats have an elongate and muscular body. Males are considerably larger than females and weigh 37 to 90 kg as compared to 28 to 60 kg for females. Leopards live mainly in grasslands, woodlands and riverside forests. Indian Leopards are opportunistic hunters. Their diet consists mostly of ungulates and monkeys, but rodents, reptiles, amphibians, birds and fish are also eaten. They have also been spotted killing and eating creatures as large as crocodiles.
28) Asiatic Lion : The Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) also known as the Indian lion, Persian Lion and Eurasian lion, is a subspecies of lion. The only place in the wild where this species is found is in the Gir Forest of Gujarat, India. In 2010, the Gujarat government reported 411 Asiatic lions were sighted in the Gir forest; a rise of 52 over the last census of 2005. The Asiatic lion is one of the five major big cats found in India, the others being the Bengal tiger, the Indian leopard, the snow leopard and clouded leopard. The Asiatic lions once ranged from the Mediterranean to the northeastern parts of the Indian subcontinent, but excessive hunting, water pollution, and decline in natural prey reduced their habitat. Historically, Asiatic lions were classified into three kinds " Bengal, Arabian and Persian lions. Asiatic lions are smaller and lighter than their African counterparts, but are equally aggressive. Asiatic lions are slightly smaller than their African cousins, although the largest Asiatic lion on record was an imposing 2.9 m in length. Though they have a less well developed mane, Asiatic lions have thicker elbow tufts and a longer tail tuft. Lions are found in savannas, grasslands, dense bush and woodlands. Mature male lions are unique among the cat species for the thick mane of brown or black hair encircling the head and neck.
29) Long eared Hedgehog : The Long-eared hedgehog is a species of hedgehog native to Central Asian countries and some countries of the Middle East. The long-eared hedgehog lives in burrows that it either makes or finds and is distinguished by its long ears. It is considered one of the smallest middle eastern hedgehogs. This Hedgehog is insectivorous but may also feed on small vertebrates and plants. In captivity they may live as long as 7.6 years. Long eared Hedgehog has a range that extends from the eastern Mediterranean region, through the arid and steppe areas of Asia to western Pakistan in the south; and from eastern Ukraine through Mongolia (Gobi desert), to China (Xinjiang). This species is native to the following countries: Afghanistan, China, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Mongolia, Pakistan, Russia, Syria, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. The long-eared Hedgehog prefers to stay in intermediate climates, avoiding the hot desert and the northern colder mountain areas. Also they prefer areas with moderate rainfall of 100"400 mm. The length of the head and body of long eared hedgehog is approximately 120-270mm, and the tail is 10-50mm long. The spines have dark brown and white stripes, and the under parts of the hedgehog are whitish. The ears are much larger than those of other hedgehogs. The long eared desert hedgehog is omnivorous but feeds mainly on small invertebrates and insects. They eat grasshoppers, beetles, and other insects. They also consume eggs, fruit, vegetables and even small vertebrates such as lizards and snakes.
30) Madras Treeshrew : The Madras Treeshrew, also known as the Indian Treeshrew is a species of treeshrew in the monotypic genus Anathana found in the hill forests of central and southern India. The genus name is derived from the Tamil name of Moongil Anathaan (literally "bamboo squirrel") and the species name is after Sir Walter Elliot of the Indian Civil Services in Madras. The Madras Treeshrew is found on the Indian subcontinent south of the Ganges River. This treeshrew is 16.0 to 18.5 cm long with a tail of 16.5 to 19.5 cm. Madras Tree shrew prefers to live in moist to semi- moist deciduous forests in dry deciduous area. They are omnivorous animals and they feed upon caterpillars, earth-worms, flying ants, butterflies and fruits.
31) Madras Cat : Madras Cat is mostly found in the North- eastern parts of India. It can also be spotted in the Corbett National Park. It belongs to the felidae family. The Madras Cat is 80- 115 cm long and weighs around 4- 8 kg. It has thick, soft, yellow- brownish fur. Its head, neck and limbs are marked with the black spots. Its tail is tipped with the black color and is around 45 cm long. It has relatively short and rounded ears with one large spot on the back. Its eyes are golden in colour and these cats have large canine teeth. The average lifespan of the Madras Cat is around 8- 10 years. The Madras cat enjoys living in the moist tropical forest. This cat is carnivorous in nature and feeds up on birds, frogs, rats, lizards, squirrels and rodents.
32) Boar : Wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as wild pig, is a species of the pig genus Sus, part of the biological family Suidae. The species includes many subspecies. It is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig, an animal with which it freely hybridises. Wild boar are native across much of Northern and Central Europe, the Mediterranean Region (including North Africa's Atlas Mountains) and much of Asia as far south as Indonesia. Populations have also been artificially introduced in some parts of the world, most notably the Americas and Australasia, principally for hunting. Elsewhere, populations have also become established after escapes of wild boar from captivity. Wild boar were originally found in North Africa and much of Eurasia; from the British Isles to Korea and the Sunda Islands. The northern limit of its range extended from southern Scandinavia to southern Siberia and Japan. Within this range it was absent in extremely dry deserts and alpine zones. Boars generally eat almost everything from berries, roots, nuts, refuse, small reptiles, carrion etc. They can also consume young lambs and deer. Due to poaching and destruction on its habitant, the number of Indian boars is gradually declining.
33) Brown long eared Bat : The brown long-eared bat or common long-eared bat is a fairly large European bat. It has distinctive ears, long and with a distinctive fold. It is extremely similar to the much rarer grey long-eared bat which was only validated as a distinct species in the 1960s. An adult brown long-eared bat has a body length of 4.5-4.8 cm, a tail of 4.1-4.6 cm, and a wing length of 4-4.2 cm. The ears are 3.3-3.9 cm in length, and readily distinguish this from most other bat species. These bats are also known as 'whispering bats' because their echo location sounds are very quiet. They have particularly sensitive hearing and often locate prey from just the sound made by the insect's own movements. These bats feed up on moths, beetles, flies, bugs earwigs and spiders.
34) Hog Deer : The hog deer is a small deer whose habitat ranges from Pakistan, through northern India, to mainland southeast Asia. There are two subspecies of hog deer: Hyelaphus porcinus porcinus which inhabits much of the Indo-Gangetic Plains of Pakistan, northern India, Nepal, Bangladesh, southwestern Yunnan Province in China, all the way to western Thailand. Hyelaphus porcinus annamiticus that inhabits Thailand, and Indochina. Introduced populations also exist in Australia the United States and Sri Lanka. A mature hog deer stag stands about 70 cm at the shoulder and weighs approximately 50 kg while hinds are much smaller, standing about 61 cm and weighing in the vicinity of 30 kg. They are very solidly built with a long body and relatively short legs and the line of the back slopes upward from the shoulders to a high rump. The ears are rounded; older animals tend to become light coloured in the face and neck. The Hog Deer likes areas with good levels of cover near to rivers and marshland areas. It can be found in dense reed beds, thick riverside vegetation and close to swamps in woodland. They are herbivores and so they eat only grass, leaves and plants.
35) Monkey : A monkey is a primate of the Haplorrhini suborder and simian infraorder, either an Old World monkey or a New World monkey, but excluding apes. There are about 260 known living species of monkey. Many are arboreal, although there are species that live primarily on the ground, such as baboons. Monkeys are generally considered to be intelligent. Unlike apes, monkeys usually have tails. Tailless monkeys may be called "apes", incorrectly according to modern usage; thus the tailless Barbary macaque is called the "Barbary ape". Monkeys are native to northern India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Burma, Thailand, Afghanistan, Vietnam, southern China, and some neighboring areas. They have the widest geographic ranges of any nonhuman primate, occupying a great diversity of altitudes throughout Central, South and Southeast Asia. Inhabiting arid, open areas, rhesus macaques may be found in grasslands, woodlands and in mountainous regions up to 2,500 m (8,200 ft) in elevation. They are regular swimmers. Babies as young as a few days old can swim, and adults are known to swim over a half mile between islands, but are often found drowned in small groups where their drinking waters lie. Rhesus macaques are noted for their tendency to move from rural to urban areas, coming to rely on handouts or refuse from humans. Monkeys range in size from the Pygmy Marmoset, at 14-16 cm long and 120-140 g in weight, to the male Mandrill, almost 1 meter long and weighing 35 kg .Some are arboreal, i.e. living in trees, some live on the savannah. The diet of the monkeys also differs among the various species but may contain any of the following: fruit, leaves, seeds, nuts, flowers, insects, spiders, eggs and small animals.
36) Muntjac Deer : The common muntjac , also called the red muntjac, Indian muntjac or barking deer, is the most numerous muntjac deer species. It has soft, short, brownish or greyish hair, sometimes with creamy markings. This species is omnivorous, feeding on grass,fruits, shoots, seeds, birds' eggs as well as small animals. It sometimes even displays scavenging behavior, feeding on carrion. It gives calls similar to barking, usually on sensing a predator (hence the common name for all muntjacs of barking deer). The male Indian muntjac has small, unbranched antlers which grow to about 15 centimeters (5.9 in) in length. The antlers grow annually from a bony stalk on the top of the head. Males are extremely territorial and"despite their diminutive size"can be quite fierce. They will fight each other for territory using their antlers or their (more dangerous) tusk-like upper canine teeth, and can even defend themselves against certain predators such as dogs. The Indian muntjac is among the most widespread but least known of all mammals in South Asia. It is found in Bangladesh, southern China, northeastern India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Pakistan, Cambodia, Vietnam, the Malay Peninsula, the Riau Archipelago, Sumatra, Bangka Island, Belitung, Java, Bali, and Borneo. This species is most densely located in Southeast Asia. The Indian muntjac is found in tropical and subtropical deciduous forests, grasslands, savannas, and scrub forests, as well as in the hilly country on the slopes of the Himalayas. They are found at altitudes ranging from sea level up to 3,000 meters (9,800 ft). They never wander far from water. Also, males usually have their own territory, which may overlap the territories of a few females but not of another male. They generally live in deciduous or coniferous forests. They are selective feeders. Their diet varies according to region and availability but may include herbs, brambles, ivy, heather, bilberry and coppice shoots.
37) Leaf Muntjac Beer : The leaf muntjac, leaf deer or Putao muntjac is a small species of muntjac. It was discovered in 1997 by biologist Alan Rabinowitz during his field study in the isolated Naungmung Township in Myanmar. Rabinowitz discovered the species by examining the small carcass of a deer that he initially believed was the juvenile of another species; however, it proved to be the carcass of an adult female. He managed to obtain specimens, from which DNA analysis revealed a new cervid species. Local hunters knew of the species and called it the leaf deer because its body could be completely wrapped by a single large leaf. The leaf muntjac is uniquely found in dense forests of Myanmar, in the Hukawng Valley region to the Northeast of Putao, hence its scientific epithet, and to the south of the Nam Tamai branch of the Mai Hka River. It is found at an altitude of 450 to 600 m " the transition zone between tropical forests and temperate ones. Its existence in India was first reported from Lohit district in eastern Arunachal Pradesh In 2002, it was reported also to exist in Namdapha Tiger Reserve, also in eastern Arunachal Pradesh, India. It has also been noted from the Lohit and Changlang region and near Noklak in Nagaland. It probably inhabits suitable habitat over the entire junction of the Patkai Bum and the Kumon Taungdan ranges. Recently, it has been recorded in several new areas of Arunachal Pradesh. An adult leaf deer is 20 inches tall and weighs less than 25 pounds. It is the world's smallest known deer. They are light brown in color. Males have antlers that are about 1m in height. Other than this, the male and female deer are identical. Both the males and females have canine tusks. The leaf muntjac mostly eats fruit. They are both diurnal and nocturnal in nature.
38) Neel Gai : The nilgai, sometimes called nilgau, is an antelope, and is one of the most commonly seen wild animals of central and northern India and eastern Pakistan; it is also present in parts of southern Nepal. The species has become extinct in Bangladesh. The mature males appear ox-like and are also known as blue bulls. The nilgai is the biggest Asian antelope. Nilgai antelope are found throughout most of India, from the base of the Himalayas in the north, down to the state of Karnataka in the south, being absent only in eastern Bengal, Assam, the Malabar Coast, and regions close to the Bay of Bengal. They are found in small numbers along the Indian borders with Pakistan and Nepal. Adult neelgai weigh about 220 kg, while the cows weigh about 180 kg and calves about 7 kg at birth. The blue-gray adult neelgai have black legs, and some may be brown, particularly younger bulls. Cows and calves are pale brown. All have similar dark and white markings on their ears and legs. Only the males have horns, which are black-colored, short, sharp, and bi curved. Generally, neelgai gives birth to twins. Neelgai mainly eats woody plants supplemented by agricultural crops. Their diet includes plant parts like, flowers, seeds, fruit, leaves, stem tips.
39) Camel : A camel is an even-toed ungulate within the genus Camelus, bearing distinctive fatty deposits known as humps on its back. There are two species of camel: Dromedary, or one-humped camels, which are native to the Middle East and the Horn of Africa; and Bactrian, or two-humped camels, which inhabit Central Asia. Both species have been domesticated; they provide milk, meat, hair for textiles or goods such as felted pouches, and are working animals. The average life expectancy of a camel is forty to fifty years. A fully-grown adult camel stands 1.85 m at the shoulder and 2.15 m at the hump. The hump rises about thirty inches out of its body. Camels can run up to a speed of 65 km/h in short bursts and sustain speeds of up to 40 km/h. Camels are herbivores. They generally feed upon dates, grass, wheat, and oats. They can live without water for a good long number of days.
40) Pangolin : A pangolin is a mammal of the order Pholidota. The one extant family, Manidae, has one genus, Manis, which comprises eight species. A number of extinct species are known. A pangolin has large keratin scales covering its skin, the only mammal with this adaptation. It is found naturally in tropical regions throughout Africa and Asia. The name, pangolin, comes from the Malay word, pengguling, meaning "something that rolls up". Pangolins are nocturnal animals which use their well-developed sense of smell to find insects. The long-tailed pangolin is also active by day. Pangolins spend most of the daytime sleeping curled up into a ball. Pangolins have small heads and long, broad tails. They are toothless and have no external ears, although their hearing is good. Pangolins are nocturnal animals; they use their well developed sense of smell to find insects. Pangolins have large, hardened, plate-like scales. The scales are soft on newborn pangolins but harden as the animal matures. The scales are made up of keratin. The weight of the protective keratinous scales and skin make up about 20% of the pangolin's weight. The size of pangolins varies by species, ranging from 30 cm to 100 cm. Females are generally smaller than males. The common pangolin prefers sandy soils and is found in woodlands and savannas, within reach of water.
41) Porcupine : Porcupines are rodents with a coat of sharp spines, or quills, that defend and camouflage them from predators. They are indigenous to the Americas, southern Asia, and Africa. Porcupines are the third largest of the rodents, behind the capybara and the beaver. Most porcupines are about 25"36 in (63"91 cm) long, with an 8"10 in (20"25 cm) long tail. Weighing between 12"35 lb (5.4"16 kg), they are rounded, large and slow. Porcupines come in various shades of brown, grey, and the unusual white. Porcupines' spiny protection resembles that of the unrelated erinaceomorph hedgehogs and monotreme echidnas. Porcupines occupy a short range of habitats in tropical and temperate parts of Asia, Southern Europe, Africa, and North and South America. Porcupines live in forests, deserts, rocky outcrops and hillsides. Some New World porcupines live in trees, but Old World porcupines stay on the rocks. Porcupines can be found on rocky areas up to 3,700 m (12,100 ft) high. Porcupines are generally nocturnal but are occasionally active during daylight. Porcupines are the third largest of the rodents. Most porcupines are about 25-36 inches long, with an 8-10 inch long tail. They weigh between 12-35 pounds. They are curved, large and slow. Porcupines come in various shades of brown, grey, and the unusual white. The common porcupine is an herbivore. It eats leaves, twigs and green plants like cabbage and clover. In the winter, it may eat bark.
42) Indian Rhinoceros : The Indian rhinoceros is also called greater one-horned rhinoceros and Asian one-horned rhinoceros and belongs to the Rhinocerotidae family. Listed as a vulnerable species, the large mammal is primarily found in parts of north-eastern India and in protected areas in the Terai of Nepal, where populations are confined to the riverine grasslands in the foothills of the Himalayas. Typically weighing between 1,600 to 3,500 kg (3,500 to 7,700 lb), it is the fourth largest land animal. The Indian rhinoceros once ranged throughout the entire stretch of the Indo-Gangetic Plain but excessive hunting reduced their natural habitat drastically. Today, about 3,000 rhinos live in the wild, 2,000 of which are found in India's Assam alone. One-horned rhinos once ranged across the entire northern part of the Indian subcontinent, along the Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra River basins, from Pakistan to the Indian-Burmese border, including parts of Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan. They may have also existed in Myanmar, southern China and Indochina.They prefer the alluvial plain grasslands of the Terai and Brahmaputra basin. As a result of habitat destruction and climatic changes their range has gradually been reduced so that by the 19th century, they only survived in the Terai grasslands of southern Nepal, northern Uttar Pradesh, northern Bihar, northern Bengal, and in the Brahmaputra Valley of Assam. The diet of the rhino consists of grass, fruit, leaves, branches, aquatic plants, and cultivated crops. Rhinos generally remain submerged in the mud as they are prone to sunburns. So, by staying in the mud they get some respite from the sunburn.
43) Snow Leopard : The snow leopard is a moderately large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central Asia. The classification of this species has been subject to change and is still classified as Uncia uncia by MSW3 as of 2000 and CITES Appendix I. However with more recent genetic studies,the snow leopard is now generally considered as Panthera uncia and classified as such by IUCN. Classically, two subspecies have been attributed but genetic differences between the two have not been settled. The snow leopard is currently restricted to Asia in Bhutan, China, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. Its geographic distribution runs from the Hindu Kush in eastern Afghanistan and the Syr Darya through the mountains of Pamir Mountains, Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kashmir, Kunlun, and the Himalaya to southern Siberia, where the range covers the Russian Altai mountains, Sayan, Tannu-Ola mountains and the mountains to the west of Lake Baikal. In Mongolia, it is found in the Mongolian and Gobi Altai and the Khangai Mountains. In Tibet it is found up to the Altyn-Tagh in the north. The life span of a Snow Leopard is normally 15"18 years, but in captivity they can live up to 20 years. It leads largely a solitary life. Its diet consists mainly of ibexes, the Bharal, the Markhor, the Urial, deer, boars, as well as pikas, marmots and other small rodents. The total wild population of the Snow Leopard is estimated at between 4,000 and 7,500 individuals.
44) Tiger : The Bengal tiger is a tiger subspecies native to the Bengal region of South Asia, and is the national animal of India and Bangladesh. The Bengal tiger is the most numerous tiger subspecies with populations estimated at 1,520"1,909 in India, 440 in Bangladesh, 124"229 in Nepal and 67"81 in Bhutan. Bengal is traditionally fixed as the typical locality for the binomial Panthera tigris, to which the British taxonomist Reginald Innes Pocock subordinated the Bengal tiger in 1929 under the trinomial Panthera tigris tigris. In the Indian subcontinent, tigers inhabit tropical moist evergreen forests, tropical dry forests, tropical and subtropical moist deciduous forests, mangroves, subtropical and temperate upland forests, and alluvial grasslands. Latter tiger habitat once covered a huge swath of grassland and riverine and moist semi-deciduous forests along the major river system of the Gangetic and Brahmaputra plains, but has now been largely converted to agriculture or severely degraded. They are territorial and generally solitary animals, often requiring large areas of habitat that support their prey demands. Of the nine subspecies of modern tiger, three are extinct and the remaining is classified as endangered. While all surviving species are under formal protection but poaching, habitat destruction and inbreeding depression continue to be threats. Tigers are carnivores. They primarily eat animals like wild boars, monkeys, buffalo, wild oxen, and chital.
45) Zebra : Zebras are several species of African equids (horse family) united by their distinctive black and white stripes. Their stripes come in different patterns, unique to each individual. They are generally social animals that live in small harems to large herds. Unlike their closest relatives, horses and asses, zebras have never been truly domesticated. They are best known for their distinctive white and black stripes, which come in different patterns unique to each individual. In addition to their stripes, zebras have erect, Mohawk-like manes. Zebras are generally 2.3 m long, stand 1.25-1.5 m at the shoulder, and weigh around 300 kg. Zebras are very adaptable grazers. They feed mainly on grasses but will also eat shrubs, herbs, twigs, leaves and bark. There are three species of zebra: the Plains Zebra, Grevy's Zebra and the Mountain Zebra. They can be found in a variety of habitats, such as grasslands, savannas, woodlands, thorny scrublands, mountains and coastal hills.